China dominates the global supply landscape across the solar PV manufacturing value chain. More than 60 per cent of the world’s supply of polysilicon, wafers, cells and modules comes from China, while it accounts for only 20 per cent of the demand. This supply is also most economically viable, with cost structures of modules in China being 5-10 cents/Watt lower than those in India, Malaysia, US and Germany. The cost structures have decreased by about 15 per cent year-on-year over the last five years and are expected to decline further, on account of consistent efficiency gains by Chinese manufacturers, making China the factory of the world. China has played a pivotal role in making solar power cheaper and accelerating energy transition, contributing significantly to the decarbonization journey of the world.
As India is inching closer to its stated mission of 100 GW installed capacity, it is imperative to become “atmanirbhar” in solar PV manufacturing. Additionally, the recent evolving geopolitical situation has resulted in trade flows from China coming under intense scrutiny, and possibly heavy protection duties, thus posing an imminent supply risk to developers.