Over the past few weeks, there has been a fresh impetus among countries to respond collectively and/or collaboratively to address climate change. For example, under the leadership of President Joe Biden, the US “joined” the agreement on climate change signed five years ago in Paris.
Another instance comes from the EU countries, which in December 2020 agreed to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions by at least 55 per cent of their levels prevailing in 1990 to achieve carbon neutrality. Globally, in other words, there are hints at jump-starting collaborative responses, given that scientists warn that evidence on climate change is stronger than ever. Countries are increasingly facing risks of climate change.
For India, the frequency of extreme climatic events and the magnitude of losses have increased in the past decade According to the Germanwatch Global Climate Risk Index 2020, which captures the level of exposure and vulnerability to extreme events, India was fifth-most affected country in 2018. Recognising the urgency of the situation, India has increased its share of energy from solar and wind. It is also evident that isolated efforts by countries to mitigate the effects of climate change have met with limited success.
There is a need for a robust collaborative initiative, and it is believed that climate change is emerging as a significant arena of multilateralism.