Although the first prime minister of India Jawahar Lal Nehru was a self-proclaimed socialist-inspired during the days of the country’s freedom struggle by the transformation of the Soviet Union under a Marxist government, this did not ensure a close and cordial relationship with the USSR after independence.
Stalin continued to view Nehru as a leader under the influence of the British and, the policy of non-alignment pursued by India also caused apprehensions in his mind. It was only after his death that there was a thaw in bilateral relations and a period of multi-dimensional economic and technical cooperation began when Khrushchev became the supreme leader.
The USSR stepped in when the Western countries refused or were reluctant to help India with its economic development. The first steel plants (Bhilai), chemical fertiliser factories (Sindri), Heavy Engineering establishment (Haridwar and Bhopal) and units to produce life-saving drugs and vaccines (IDPL in Rishikesh) were set up with Russian assistance.